Society for Participatory Action and Reflection (SPAR)

Project Theme


Target Group


Project Period

01 Apr 2015 - 31 Mar 2016

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Jharkhand has an extensive network of Government health institutions. There are 4462 sub centres, 368 additional PHCs, 193 block PHCs, 37 referral hospitals, 10 sub divisional hospitals, 22 Sadar hospitals, and 3 medical colleges and hospitals. However, despite these numbers, they still fall short of what is necessary and access to quality health services is a major issue.   Furthermore, the sheer remoteness of several populations makes it difficult to access the health provisions that do exist. 

Furthermore, about 12.5% of the population fails to get 2 square meals a day (NSSO, 55th Round). Only 75.4% of householders have safe drinking water and 16.8% have toilet facilities. Infant Mortality Rate is 504 per 100000 deliveries. Anemia among women is high at 72.9%.  As per the NFHS data in Jharkhand the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births in the last five years was 69 as compare to national average 57, similarly percentage of children under age 3 who were underweight was 59 as compared to the national average 46, the percentage of institutional deliveries was only 19 as compared to the national average 41, percentage of children 12-23 months who have received all recommended vaccines is 35 as compared to national average 44. However, the status was worse in rural areas. 

As far as the status of education is concerned, Jharkhand stands 2nd from the bottom in over all literacy (53.6%, Census, 2001) surpassed only by Bihar. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Government of India’s flagship education program) was launched in partnership with the State Government and the local Self Governance to ensure the elementary education to all children in the 6-10 years age group by 2010 leading to some gradual improvement. However, the status of education remains poor. Roughly 14 lakhs children are out of school- of which roughly 80% are tribals.  Only 58.4% of children enrolled in grades I-V attend school regularly. The primary completion rate is around 56% as per the NSS 55th round estimates. 

These figures of high numbers of children out of school are a reflection of the poor infrastructure in schools. The State has the highest Pupil Teacher Ratio and school infrastructure. It is significant to note in this regard that the newly enforced norms of the RTE Act make the prevalence of such infrastructure a justiciable violation of the rights of children. Furthermore, it is essential to recognize that children from the Adivasi community belong to a particular cultural background that requires recognition in the curriculum and requires adaptation of the modalities of teaching. This is usually not done, leading to high dropout rates among dalits. 

Thus we see that the access to essential services in the State is a major issue of concern. The necessity of strengthening the universal mechanisms for free and public health and education is based on simultaneously the need to ensure entitlements reach the population in need, while at the same time providing a tool for empowerment and a model for democratization of government functioning. 


The Project: 

The project aims to strengthen capacity of civil society organizations to monitor implementation of public health and Right to Education in selected villages of Jharkhand. The project plans to:\

  • To provide handholding to various stakeholders like SMCs, VHSNCs to monitor and effective implementation of provisions under RTE and Health entitlements. 
  • To strengthen networks of civil society organization and linked with other state and national level networks and advocacy on implementation and policy issues
  • To promote the use of local language/dialect as a medium of instruction at entry the  level classes for making school child friendly and  easy to understand and communication. 
  • To promote the ECC (Early Childhood Care) for better health and education.


The Impact:

Oxfam India along with its partner initiated the process of strengthening the civil society movement towards realizing the entitlements on health and education. We have so far - 

  • Creation of an environment at state level for   promotion of   MLE and ECC 
  • Assurance of RDDE (Regional Deputy Director of Education) , Kolhan on promotion of MLE in the commissionary.
  • Principal Secretary HRD, showed her keen interest to improve the quality of education including MLE and ECC (Pre- schooling) in the state.
  • Issues of MLE and ECC   recognized by SCPCR and RDDE. State government also taking initiatives to promote education in local languages.
  • In order to having first hand information regarding need of MLE and ECC a  Study has been conducted  on the status of  MLE and  ECC in Jharkhand.
  • For capturing good practices, testimonies of the different stakeholder and success stories a    Video Documentary have been produced.
  • Raise the issues in the state   and commissionary level programme like state level stock taking programme organized by JRTEF.
  • Shared the issues related to status of RTE Act 2009 in referral area in front of  SCPCR and Jharkhand Education Project Council.
  • Participation in  the Commisionaries and state level 


Quotes of Beneficiaries:   

Padmini Devi, member of Village Health and Sanitation Committee (VHSC) “ I went to Ranchi for a training organized by SPAR. This training in a sense proved to be a turning point in my life. On one hand I gained valuable knowledge, also this enabled me to understand that I can also play an important role in bringing positive changes in my community”.


Case Studies/Human stories:

Fulmani has got her education right

“Supporting civil society movement towards right to free public health and education in Jharkhand” is a project supported by Oxfam India and is being implemented by SPAR. The project is being running in two blocks namely Anandpur and Mahoharpur of West Singhbhum of Jharkhand. The project is being implemented in 20 villages of two panchayat Kolpotka and Bedakenduda.  Large portions of population are living in pathetic condition in remote villages of Jharkhand and also deprived from basic amenities like health and education. SPAR is striving to increase their awareness level so that they are able to avail their basic rights of health and education. Harinarayan Lohar and Rupa Lohar are resident of village Moreng which comes under Bedakenduda Panchayat of Anandpur block in West Singhbhum district. The main occupation of the family is work as a black smith and labour work. They are parents of three children (eldest one is 7 years, second one is 4 years and then third one is 2.5 years).  Due to lack of awareness they were not sending their elder daughter Fulmani Lohar, 7 years old girl to school and engaged her in daily house hold cores and looking after siblings. Her parents used to say that we have enough iron related work to do at home which can help her learn as well earn livelihood in future so what is the need to go to a school. After knowing the case SPAR’s community advocate Ms. Kusum Kandayburu started talking with the parent and she also shared the same thing to Community mobilizer Ms. Padmini. It took almost one year of continuous effort to make the parent understand the need of education to a girl child. Ultimately the parents understood and agreed to enroll their daughter in the school in the village. Now along with girl (Fulmani) their parents are also very happy to see their daughter going to school and learning new things. Now their parents are saying they will enroll all their children when they will attain the age of schooling.