01 Apr 2015 - 30 Mar 2016
01 Apr 2015 - 30 Mar 2016
Jharkhand has an extensive network of Government health institutions. There are 4462 sub centres, 368 additional PHCs, 193 block PHCs, 37 referral hospitals, 10 sub divisional hospitals, 22 Sadar hospitals, and 3 medical colleges and hospitals. However, despite these numbers, they still fall short of what is necessary and access to quality health services is a major issue. Furthermore, the sheer remoteness of several populations makes it difficult to access the health provisions that do exist.
Furthermore, about 12.5% of the population fails to get 2 square meals a day (NSSO, 55th Round). Only 75.4% of householders have safe drinking water and 16.8% have toilet facilities. Infant Mortality Rate is 504 per 100000 deliveries. Anemia among women is high at 72.9%. As per the NFHS data in Jharkhand the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births in the last five years was 69 as compare to national average 57, similarly percentage of children under age 3 who were underweight was 59 as compared to the national average 46, the percentage of institutional deliveries was only 19 as compared to the national average 41, percentage of children 12-23 months who have received all recommended vaccines is 35 as compared to national average 44. However, the status was worse in rural areas.
As far as the status of education is concerned, Jharkhand stands 2nd from the bottom in over all literacy (53.6%, Census, 2001) surpassed only by Bihar. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Government of India’s flagship education program) was launched in partnership with the State Government and the local Self Governance to ensure the elementary education to all children in the 6-10 years age group by 2010 leading to some gradual improvement. However, the status of education remains poor. Roughly 14 lakhs children are out of school- of which roughly 80% are tribals. Only 58.4% of children enrolled in grades I-V attend school regularly. The primary completion rate is around 56% as per the NSS 55th round estimates.
These figures of high numbers of children out of school are a reflection of the poor infrastructure in schools. The State has the highest Pupil Teacher Ratio and school infrastructure. It is significant to note in this regard that the newly enforced norms of the RTE Act make the prevalence of such infrastructure a justiciable violation of the rights of children. Furthermore, it is essential to recognize that children from the Adivasi community belong to a particular cultural background that requires recognition in the curriculum and requires adaptation of the modalities of teaching. This is usually not done, leading to high dropout rates among dalits.
Thus we see that the access to essential services in the State is a major issue of concern. The necessity of strengthening the universal mechanisms for free and public health and education is based on simultaneously the need to ensure entitlements reach the population in need, while at the same time providing a tool for empowerment and a model for democratization of government functioning.
The project aims to strengthen capacity of civil society organizations to monitor implementation of public health and Right to Education in selected villages of Jharkhand. The project plans to:
•To provide handholding to various stakeholders like SMCs, VHSNCs to monitor and effective implementation of provisions under RTE and Health entitlements.
•To strengthen networks of civil society organization and linked with other state and national level networks and advocacy on implementation and policy issues
•To do budget tracking in identified 5 commissionaires of Jharkhand for effective utilization of budget under RTE and health entitlements and schemes.
Oxfam India along with its partner initiated the process of strengthening the civil society movement towards realizing the entitlements on health and education. We have so far -
•Budget tracking and its utilization of MDM, SDP, JSY and Untied fund of Education and health facilities in 5 Commissionaires of Jharkhand State for advocacy and documentation purpose, the findings are as follow:
•Completed the research and prepared the report on gaps of budget and its utilization of five commissionaires of Jharkhand. The report documented and shared the findings gaps/recommendations with Government officials.
•A pressure group was formed at state level to pressurize on Government health department for availability of generic medicine in all districts and block level hospitals.
•Community from 20 villages have been aware and now they are creating demands for health and education facilities in their village where gaps were found.
•Institutional delivery in 20 project intervention villages has been increased. 332out of 389 institutional deliveries have been reported.
• Increased access and awareness about health services (JSY and JSSK Scheme) among community i.e. 332 institutional deliveries under JSY and 315 pregnant women availed the benefits under JSSK scheme was reported. This was result of continuous orientation of VHSNC members, SHG groups and PRIs on health rights & entitlements.
•In all 20 projects intervention villages, Village health plan were prepared and incorporated into block level health plan.
•18 out of 20 VHSNCs utilized their untied fund in common interest of community. Regular tracking and monitoring of untied fund was done by PRI members and CBO’s.
•20 Bal Sansads were formed among out of which 14 BS played an effective role in creating a school friendly environment at their school.
•Till date, total 57 drop out children has been mainstreamed in formal education system.
•20 Schools development plans were prepared and incorporated into block level plan. As per School Development Plan (SDP), construction of 8 classroom and 4 kitchen sheds were completed, 5 separate toilets for girls and boys were made and 3 hand pumps were installed in school.
•School Management Committees (SMCs) are functional in all 20 villages.
•16 PRIs and 18 CBOs members monitor in implementation of 16 school development plan.
Quotes of Beneficiaries:
“This change is important for me because some time back I was ignorant and today I have become an agent of change for my community and this created my own identity in the village and has boosted my morale and confidence” - Poonam Devi, Community Advocate.
Case Studies/Human stories:
Poonam Devi of Chauparan block of Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand took forward the struggle of mobilizing 200 women of the village of different SHGs and empowered them to demand their rights and entitlements. As per the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), Government of India scheme, a provision of THR(Take home Rashan) under which adolescent girls are ensured of their health, preventing them from being anemic most the girls do not get surplus nutrition. But the concerned person who was supposed to distribute the same was denying giving it to girls or gives very poor quality of rotten soya chunks that too not in the appropriate quantity.
Poonam along with few women of the village went to ask the reason why they are not providing girls appropriate THR and questioned the quality of the soya Chunks, But The Aanganwadi Sevika denied giving any answer and asked them not to interfere in their work. Poonam then went to the Block authority demanding their right of village girls THR , again they were sent empty handed saying that it’s not their business, which motivated her to mobilize more than 200 women of village and went to their area MLA and organized a protest march against the authorities to well enough secure their rights. The march began from Chauparan and ended in Hazaribagh catching the attention of one and all.
This resulted in ensuring the timely, adequate and quality supply of THR along with other facilities across the village and not only Village but this incident inspired women of nearby village and mobilization of Chauparan block which ensured good health of their own children and people.